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Tennis is an Olympic sport practiced on all continents. Everyone can also play tennis, including people with disabilities.

Tennis, tennis is a sport played on the tennis court. The game is simple in its meaning and consists in piercing the ball with a tennis racket above the grids to the opponent’s field. The game can be played singly (so-called single) or in two-player teams (doubles) or both at once (mixed). Tennis has always been a summer Olympic discipline from 1896 to 1924. It returned to their program in 1988 and is still there today. The modern version of tennis was born in Great Britain at the end of the 19th century as lawn tennis. Soon after its inception, tennis spread to the upper classes of English-speaking societies before it became popular around the world.

The tennis search rules, which were first written in 1877, changed only a few major changes in the following decades. One of them is the tie-break game introduced in the 1970s, while the other is Hawk-Eye technology approved at the beginning of the 21st century , enabling verification of the referee’s decision in the event that the ball hits any of the following court lines.

The most important tennis games of the year are four tournaments forming the so-called Grand Slam Tournament: Australian Open, Roland Garros, Wimbledon and US Open. Among the international team competitions there are: the Davis and Hopman Cup, the Fed Cup and the World Team Cup (united states tennis association and tennis association all rights of northern california ).

The beginnings of tennis

They are associated with the medieval game played by monks in European monasteries. In this version of tennis, the ball was struck by the hand, hence the game was called jeu de paume. This game began to be called real or royal tennis. Soon after, leather gloves were introduced, which in turn replaced the prototypes of the first rockets in the 16th century. The first tennis balls were made of wood. Over time, they gave way to more reflective leather balls filled with cellulose. The game quickly gained popularity, especially in France, where it was popularized by members of the royal family, and in England, whose kings Henry VII and Henry VIII were avid players and ordered to build courts throughout the country. According to legend, it was Henry VIII “invented” the service (ang. Service), which is the start kicking the exchange – because the king was too fat to be able to throw the ball up, the servants did it for him.

The birth of a modern game

In its present form it can be dated from two different sources. Between 1859 and 1865 Major Harry Gem and his friend Augurio Parera developed a game that is a mix of rocket sports and the Basque pelota game. They played their first tennis matches on the croquet lawn at the Gema estate in Birmingham. In 1872, together with two local doctors, Frederic Haynes and Arthur Tomkin, they founded the world’s first tennis club at Leamington Spa.

In December 1873, Major Walter Clopton Wingfield developed a similar game that was played at garden parties at his Welsh estate, Nantclwyd. In 1874, the major patented this game by giving it the Greek name sphairistike, also known as lawn tennis. For its description, Wingfield borrowed a significant portion of the French vocabulary used in royal tennis:

Tennis is derived from the French tenez which is a form of imperative from the tenir verb meaning Gramy! / (Wait) I serve!

The rocket comes from the word raquette, which in turn is derived from the Arabic rakhat, meaning hand.

Deuce comes from the French expression à deux le jeu, meaning “gem for both,” or balance.

It is believed that love, or zero, comes from the Dutch-Flemish noun lof, meaning honor or the French predicate l’oeuf, meaning egg whose shape resembles zero.

The method of scoring in the game – in turn 15, 30, 40 comes from the French numerals quinze, trente and quarante, which share similar pronunciation of the endings, or from consecutive quarters of the clock (15, 30, 45), with which the result in the game was determined before the appearance computers, with 45 being simplified to 40 over time.

Some of the principles described in Wingfield’s eight-page book Sphairstaike or Lawn Tennis have not stood the test of time. The playing field, which initially had the shape of two trapeziums connected by bases, has taken the present form of a rectangle since 1877. In the same year, the All England Croquet Club added the Lawn Tennis member to its name, taking over the task of regulating the regulations.

Tennis at the Olympic Games

Tennis was one of the nine disciplines in which athletes competed during the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. Then played single and double men tournaments. Four years later, tennis players made their debut at the games. Tennis fell out of the Olympic Games after 1924 due to a conflict between ILTF and IOC. He returned to him in 1988 during the Olympics in Seoul (in Mexico in 1968 and in Los Angeles in 1984 he was a show discipline). As part of the games played in Beijing in 2008, single and double men and women tournaments were played. The authorities of the International Olympic Committee have announced that the London Games in 2012 will also be a mixed game competition (held for the last time in 1924).

During the 1896, 1900, 1904, 1988 and 1992 games, the losers of the semi-finals received bronze medals. In the remaining years matches for the third place were played. Since the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, achievements in the Olympic Games have been awarded ranking points.

Rules

The tennis match is played on a rectangular, flat tennis court with hard, brick, grass, concrete or asphalt or carpet surface (the latter type is most often used in indoor matches). The court length is 23.77 meters (78 feet) and the width is 8.23 ​​meters (27 feet) in singles and 10.97 meters for doubles matches. Outside the playing field, additional space around the court is also required so that players can chase balls flying outside. In the middle of the court, parallel to the end lines, there is a net dividing it into two equal parts. The height of the mesh is highest at the posts to which it is attached, and is 1.07 m (3.5 feet). In the middle of the court it is the lowest, 91.4 cm (3 feet).

The tennis court owes its present shape to Major Walter Clopton Wingfield, who in 1873 patented the idea of ​​a tennis court known as sphairstike. Invented by Wingfield, the two-trapezoidal court connected by bases was modified to its current rectangular shape in 1875.

Lines

Parallel to the grid farthest from it is called the baseline, while the line closer to the center of the court is called service. There is a center mark in the middle of each end line. The outermost line is called the doubles line. It is used only during doubles and mixed matches. The lateral line closer to the center of the court marks the lateral boundary of the playing field in single matches. The area between the side doubles line and the single side line closer to it is called the doubles corridor. Only doubles and mixed pair matches are used.

The line running across each court half is called the service line because the player must hit the area from the net on the opponent’s side to that line at the service. Thus, the service line does not mean the place where the tennis player stands at the pass. The service dividing line is called the center line or center service line. The area defined by the single side line, service line and side service line is called a service penalty. At each point, the player serves a different service card. A ball is considered out-of-court when it does not bounce even once in the playing field determined by the end and side lines (depending on the doubles or singles competition) or one of these lines. The end line width can reach a maximum of 4 inches (101.6 mm). The width of the other lines must be between 1 and 2 inches (25.4 mm to 50.8 mm).

How to play the match

In tennis, endurance is an important factor, the arbitrary extension of intervals between actions is prohibited. Matches are fought with short breaks. In most cases, the server must start the action no later than 20 seconds after the previous point has been completed. When changing court sides (after each odd game) this time is extended to 90 seconds, while the interval between sets lasts 120 seconds. In other cases, breaks are allowed only if they are not caused by reasons beyond the control of the player, such as rain, damaged shoes, damaged racket or the need to replace the ball. If a player continually delays the start of the exchange, the referee may punish him with a warning, loss of point, game or even match.

When there is rain, darkness or other situations that prevent play, the match resumes later with the same result and players on the same sides of the court or the same position (north or south) when the game resumes on another court.

A recent proposal regarding changes to the rules of the game concerns the possibility of talking to the player with the coach during the break. This proposal has been approved by the WTA and has been in force in women’s competitions since the beginning of the 2009 season.

Playing a single point

Organizations Two players or two teams start the game on opposite sides of the court and captains. One of the players is serving, while his opponent or in the case of doubles one of the opponents is the receiver. At the end of each game, the next player serves the player who previously picked up. Each exchange begins with a service played from behind the end line, between the side single line and the center mark of the court. The receiver can stand anywhere on his side of the court. When the receiver is ready to play, the server begins the exchange.

If the service has been performed correctly, the ball passes over the net without touching it and lands in the service field on the oblique side of the court. A service error is an application that is too long, too wide, or does not fly over the net. Another type of service error is “foot fault”. Foot error occurs when the server’s foot touches the end line or the end line marker is extended before the ball hits. A player who has made a service error has another service at his disposal. If this service also proves to be incorrect, the player has committed a double service error, and the point is awarded to the recipient. If the ball touches the net tape but falls into a service penalty, the “let” command is called and the feeder repeats the service. In one action, the player can serve an unlimited number of letters, because they are not considered service errors.

The hit site starts a replacement, in which players alternately bounce the ball over or next to the net to the opponent’s side. The stroke is considered correct as long as the player throws the ball to the other side before it bounces twice from the ground without touching any other element of the court except the net, and the ball does not turn out to be outright. The exchange continues until one of the tennis players fails to make a proper bounce.

Punctation

A tennis match is divided into sets, they are divided into games, which consist of points. Most tennis matches are played until one player has won two sets (“best of three” rule). In a few cases, men’s matches are played for winning by one of the players three sets (“best of five” rule) [55]. These exceptions include Grand Slam matches, the Olympic finals and Davis Cup matches. In men’s doubles, this rule applies only to Wimbledon and the Davis Cup.

The game consists of a series of points at the service of one player. Gema is won by the player who wins at least four actions in it with at least two balls ahead of his rival. The result in the game is described in a characteristic way only for tennis. The result starts from zero (love), and the next three points are: 15 (French Quinze), 30 (French Trent), 40 (French Quarante). The idea of ​​such scoring was born in the 19th century in France, when instead of the currently used electronic boards the result was determined by means of clocks. Each of the following points corresponded to the numbers indicated by the clock 0, 15, 30, 45. Over time, 45 was changed to 40. If each player won at least three points and the result is a tie, this situation is described by the command “balance” ). When both players won at least three exchanges, with one of them winning one more action, the “advantage” and the name of the player who leads the game is called.

In a tennis tournament, the table referee announces the result in the game after each action. The result during the duel is given from the perspective of the steward, and after its end the final result is announced by the winner.

A game point is a situation in which a player in the game needs one action win to win it. Similarly, set, match or even championship point is determined, e.g. if the server leads in a 40-0 game, he has a triple game ball, i.e. three consecutive opportunities to get a game. Game, set, match and championship balls are not included in the official scoring and are not announced by the table access league referee.

Break point means a level organization situation in which the player receiving the game needs one action win to break, i.e. winning the game at the opponent’s service. Break points are particularly important in a match because it is usually easier to win a game with your own pass senior. As with other game balls, break points are not officially announced.

The set consists of a series of games. At the end of each game, there will be a change of delivery. The set ends when the number of games won by one player meets certain requirements. Seta is won by the player who has won six games with at least two advantage games. If one player has won six games and the other five, an additional game is played. If the leading player proves to be better password in it, he wins the 7: 5 set. If, however, it turns out better in it. (party content)

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Sports results in tennis are not only a position in the ranking

The position of a tennis player or a couple in the ranking often determined the victory, tennis in the past would be a predictable discipline. However, it usta norcal practically different examples, if we take into account the ATP and WTA rankings, some of them are randomly drawn. In tennis, many variables decide about success. For example, there are such situations that the top of the ranking is exceptionally not playing against the theoretically less efficient rival and this is reflected in the results. Before making a bet, it is good practice to carefully track the history of their duels checking usta norcal , which can be a very valuable clueteam registration online. National search level required password…